Thursday, November 13, 2008


1. TCP / IP is a suit of the protocols, TCP works on port 6

2. You can communicate to another machine by PING-ing to it using its IP address

3. The full form of PING is Packet Inter Net Groper,
The PING command can be defined as a computer network tool used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an IP network; it is also used to self test the network interface card of the computer, or as a speed test.

4. You can also use the command called Address Resolution Protocol to determine the who and what of your machine, i.e you can get a list of all the machines that spoke to your machine by typing the command arp –a
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method for finding a host's hardware address when only its Network Layer address is known.
As soon as you fire this command it gets a list of all the machines talking to your machines
Arp works in two formats arp request and arp acknowledgement. Both request and acknowledgement makes a reply

5. IP addresses : An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification (logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network

There are 5 classes of this address

CLASS A 1-126
CLASS B 128-191
CLASS C 192-223
CLASS D 229-239
CLASS E 240-256

127 is reserved for Loop back, checks the position of NIC and NOS – Network Operating System

6. Subnet mask- it is actually the number of bit that can be used by the machine,

For example: 24 Bits
Equals 255x255x255x0
Equals 255x255x0x0 = 165025 bits

255 x 255 x 255 = 16521375
7. Private IP : The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets (local networks): - - -

These IP’s must not be used in Internet
In a IP address first 24 Bits is the Company ID and last 25 bits is Unique ID

8. Difference Between HUB and Switches :

Hub is a common connecting device that connects the machines in network or LAN. Hub has a tendency to broadcast the data every time so if it needs to send data to Mac1 to will broadcast to all the machines in network, Hackers can make god use of it so its Insecure and because of the broadcasting technique its slower..


This is again a device that connects Computer devices however it broadcasts the information only once, and then it creates the IP – MAC table and remembers the IP address of the machines to deliver the data correctly next time, also its quite evident that this method is more secure & Faster

9. LAN :

Local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN.

LAN works on two things basically, Physical MAC and Logical IP

10. Network Topology :

Four types of network topology
a. Bus : Linear setup
b. Star : One central switch or Hub connection to computers
c. Ring : each packet is send round ring until it reaches destination
d. Mesh : All the machines are connected to one another
I got the best explanation on the site

11. Difference Between FAT and NTFS
Refer to my post on link

12. Operating system and versions :
NT 4.0 works on FAT 16
NT 5.2 is renamed as server 2003

• Windows server Web edition Does not support ADS
• Active Directory cannot be installed on FAT

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